Transport in Kazakhstan

From Kazakhstan Encyclopedia

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The vast territory of Kazakhstan spans across Template:Convert. The population density is low in Kazakhstan, and the centers of industry and agriculture are spread out and remote from world markets. Therefore, the need for efficient transportation in Kazakhstan is great.

Kazakhstan is committed to regional infrastructure development.[1] According to the Kazakhstan Ambassador to the U.S., Kairat Umarov, Kazakhstan invested $18 billion in construction of airports, highways, and railroads in 2014.[1]


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Total: Railways provide 68% of all cargo and passenger traffic to over 57% of the country. There are Template:Convert in common carrier service, excluding industrial lines.[2]

Broad Gauge: Template:Convert of Template:Track gauge gauge, Template:Convert electrified, in 2012.[2]

Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (KTZ) is the national railway company.

As the Kazakhstani rail system was designed during the Soviet era, rail routes were designed ignoring intersoviet borders and to the needs of Soviet planning. This has caused anamolies such as the route from Ural'sk to Aktobe now passes briefly through Russian territory. It also means that routes might not suit modern-day Kazakhstani needs.

Railway links with adjacent countries

The strategy of transport development in Kazakhstan until 2015 is to build Template:Convert of new electrified and Template:Convert of existing railway stations.

The Khorgos Gateway dry port is one of Kazakhstan's primary dry ports for handling trans-Eurasian trains, which travel more than 9,000 km between China and Europe. The Khorgos Gateway dry port is surrounded by Khorgos Eastern Gate SEZ that officially commenced operations in December 2016.[3]





  • Proposals to eliminate break of gauge at Druzhba-Alashankou by converting the Kazakhstan main line to European gauge.


Towns served by rail

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Rapid Transit and Tram Systems


There is a small Template:Convert metro system in Almaty. A second and third metro lines are planned in the future. The second line would intersect with the first line at Alatau and Zhibek Zholy stations.[6]

In May 2011, the construction of the second phase of the Almaty Metro line 1 began. The general contractor is Almatymetrokurylys. Currently more than Template:Convert of tunnels on the extension project have been excavated. The extension includes five new stations, and will connect the downtown area of Almaty with Kalkaman in the suburbs. Its length will be Template:Convert.[7]

The construction is divided into 3 phases. The first phase (the current phase) will be the addition of two stations: Sairan and Moscow, a length of Template:Convert.[7] For more details see: Almaty Metro.

There is still a tram system which opened in 1937. However, with the metro construction, 8 of the 10 lines were closed and now there are only 2 lines. They total 23 km.[8]


The Astana Metro system is under construction.

It's been a long time coming and the project was abandoned at one point in 2013,[9] but an agreement was signed on 7 May 2015 for the project to go ahead.[10]


The system was opened between 1959 and 1978, and the tram is a popular form of transport in Oskemen/Ust-Kamenogorsk. At its peak it had 6 routes, but now has 4 routes in operation. It has a fleet of 50 working tram cars.[11]


There is an Template:Convert tram network, which began service in 1965 with, Template:As of, 20 regular and 3 special routes. The network has a 60% share of the local public transport market. Its fleet of 115 trams are due to be replaced and in 2012, the city announced plans to purchase 100 new trams.[12]


There are 2 tram lines in this city.[13]


Al-Farabi street, Almaty, Esentai Tower

Kazakhstan has a road network stretching over Template:Convert, most of which is in need of modernization and repair.

It is stated in the CIA Factbook that Kazakhstan has a total road network of Template:Convert which is made up of: paved, Template:Convert and unpaved, Template:Convert (2008).[2]

Template:As of, there were 3,264,400 registered cars.[15]

Template:As of, there were 3 845 301 registered cars, total 4 425 770 unit of autotransport by information «Казинформ»(Kazinform [1]).[16]

Five international routes pass through Kazakhstan, totaling Template:Convert. These highways are:

In 2009, the country began the construction of the "Western Europe - Western China" highway, which will be completed Template:Clarify. The total length of the road will be Template:Convert, of which Template:Convert will be in Kazakhstan, (Aktobe, Kyzylorda, South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl and Almaty oblasts). The thickness of the asphalt and concrete pavement will be Template:Convert, and the expected lifespan of the highway will be 25 years, without a major overhaul, and the maximum speed limit Template:Convert. The project includes a number of bridges over rivers, road maintenance facilities, bus stop areas, avtopavilony, cattle trails, and electronic signage. Simultaneously with the construction of this highway, roads will be repaired and built in areas along its route.[17][18][19]


The motorway network in Kazakhstan is rather underdeveloped, mainly due to the low population density in the country, which doesn't require wider roads on long distances. The following are the only existing multi-lane, double carriage roads in Kazakhstan:

Total: 490 km


Condensate, Template:Convert; gas, Template:Convert; oil, Template:Convert; refined products, Template:Convert; water, Template:Convert (2010)[2]

Waterways and Waterborne Transportation

There are Template:Convert of waterways on the Syrdariya (Syr Darya), 80%, and Ertis (Irtysh) rivers, (2010)[2]

Ports and harbors

Caspian Sea

On rivers

Merchant Marine

Total: 11 vessels By type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1

Foreign-owned: 3 (Austria 1, Ireland 1, Turkey 1), 2010[2]


Kazakhstan has a total of 97 airports (2012)[2]However, it is quoted as having a total of 449 airports in (2001)[14]

The large area of the country and the associated long distances makes air travel a very important component in domestic travel.

Airports - with paved runways

total: 64[2]

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Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 33[2]


Total: 3 (2012)[2]


European Commission blacklisted all Kazakh carriers in 2009, with a sole exception of Air Astana. Since then, Kazakhstan was consistently taking measures to modernize and revamp its air safety oversight. Thus, in 2016 the European air safety authorities removed all Kazakh airlines from blacklist and there was “sufficient evidence of compliance” with international standards by Kazakh airlines and the Civil Aviation Committee.[20]

Air Astana - most popular Kazakhstani Air operator Template:Main article Air Astana (Эйр Астана) is the principal airline and the flag carrier of the Republic of Kazakhstan, based in Almaty, Kazakhstan.[21] It operates scheduled domestic and international services on 56 routes from its main hub, Almaty International Airport, and from its 2 secondary hubs, Astana International Airport and Atyrau Airport. It is a joint venture between Kazakhstan’s sovereign wealth fund Samruk-Kazyna (51%), and BAE Systems PLC (49%). It was incorporated in October 2001, and started commercial flights on 15 May 2002. At the 2012 World Airline Awards held at Farnborough Airshow in the UK, Air Astana was named the Best Airline in Central Asia & India.[22]

Qazaq Air - New airline Qazaq Air is a new airline in Kazakhstan.


Air Astana operates the following destinations (as of April 2009):

File:Air astana.jpg
Air Astana Boeing 757 aircraft at Suvarnabhumi Airport in Bangkok, Thailand

Domestic (Kazakhstan)



The New Silk Road

Kazakhstan is actively involved in the New Silk Road initiative, which is an infrastructure project expected to significantly accelerate and reduce the cost of goods delivery from China to Europe through Central Asia.[23]

See also

External links



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