Transport in Kazakhstan
From Kazakhstan Encyclopedia
The vast territory of Kazakhstan spans across Template:Convert. The population density is low in Kazakhstan, and the centers of industry and agriculture are spread out and remote from world markets. Therefore, the need for efficient transportation in Kazakhstan is great.
Kazakhstan is committed to regional infrastructure development. According to the Kazakhstan Ambassador to the U.S., Kairat Umarov, Kazakhstan invested $18 billion in construction of airports, highways, and railroads in 2014.
- 1 Railways
- 2 Rapid Transit and Tram Systems
- 3 Highways
- 4 Pipelines
- 5 Waterways and Waterborne Transportation
- 6 Ports and harbors
- 7 Airports
- 8 Airlines
- 9 The New Silk Road
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
- 12 References
Kazakhstan Temir Zholy (KTZ) is the national railway company.
As the Kazakhstani rail system was designed during the Soviet era, rail routes were designed ignoring intersoviet borders and to the needs of Soviet planning. This has caused anamolies such as the route from Ural'sk to Aktobe now passes briefly through Russian territory. It also means that routes might not suit modern-day Kazakhstani needs.
- Template:Flagicon Russia - same gauge (former Soviet Union railway system)
- Template:Flagicon China - break of gauge Template:Track gauge/Template:Track gauge; border station at Druzhba, KZ - Alashankou, CN, connection between the Turkestan–Siberia Railway and the Northern Xinjiang Railway (no electrification on them). Another connection is from Altynkol Railway Station near Khorgas to the Jinghe–Yining–Khorgos Railway towards Ürümqi.
- Template:Flagicon Kyrgyzstan - same gauge (former Soviet Union railway system)
- Template:Flagicon Uzbekistan - same gauge (former Soviet Union railway system)
- Template:Flagicon Turkmenistan - same gauge (former Soviet Union railway system) (railway link opened in 2013, presently for freight)
- Caspian Sea - railhead Template:Track gauge
The Khorgos Gateway dry port is one of Kazakhstan's primary dry ports for handling trans-Eurasian trains, which travel more than 9,000 km between China and Europe. The Khorgos Gateway dry port is surrounded by Khorgos Eastern Gate SEZ that officially commenced operations in December 2016.
- BOOT line from Zhetigen to Khorgos on the China border. The line would branch off the existing railway near Shaquanzi.
- Proposals to eliminate break of gauge at Druzhba-Alashankou by converting the Kazakhstan main line to European gauge.
Towns served by rail
Rapid Transit and Tram Systems
There is a small Template:Convert metro system in Almaty. A second and third metro lines are planned in the future. The second line would intersect with the first line at Alatau and Zhibek Zholy stations.
In May 2011, the construction of the second phase of the Almaty Metro line 1 began. The general contractor is Almatymetrokurylys. Currently more than Template:Convert of tunnels on the extension project have been excavated. The extension includes five new stations, and will connect the downtown area of Almaty with Kalkaman in the suburbs. Its length will be Template:Convert.
The construction is divided into 3 phases. The first phase (the current phase) will be the addition of two stations: Sairan and Moscow, a length of Template:Convert. For more details see: Almaty Metro.
There is still a tram system which opened in 1937. However, with the metro construction, 8 of the 10 lines were closed and now there are only 2 lines. They total 23 km.
The Astana Metro system is under construction.
The system was opened between 1959 and 1978, and the tram is a popular form of transport in Oskemen/Ust-Kamenogorsk. At its peak it had 6 routes, but now has 4 routes in operation. It has a fleet of 50 working tram cars.
There is an Template:Convert tram network, which began service in 1965 with, Template:As of, 20 regular and 3 special routes. The network has a 60% share of the local public transport market. Its fleet of 115 trams are due to be replaced and in 2012, the city announced plans to purchase 100 new trams.
There are 2 tram lines in this city.
Kazakhstan has a road network stretching over Template:Convert, most of which is in need of modernization and repair.
Five international routes pass through Kazakhstan, totaling Template:Convert. These highways are:
- M-36 Highway: Almaty – Astana – Kostanay (continues to Chelyabinsk)
- Almaty – Petropavl to Omsk with the release ofTemplate:Clarify
- M-38 Highway: Almaty - Semey - Pavlodar (continues to Omsk)
- M-39 Highway: Almaty - Shymkent (continues to Tashkent)
- M-32 Highway: Shymkent - Aktobe - Oral (continues to Samara)
In 2009, the country began the construction of the "Western Europe - Western China" highway, which will be completed Template:Clarify. The total length of the road will be Template:Convert, of which Template:Convert will be in Kazakhstan, (Aktobe, Kyzylorda, South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl and Almaty oblasts). The thickness of the asphalt and concrete pavement will be Template:Convert, and the expected lifespan of the highway will be 25 years, without a major overhaul, and the maximum speed limit Template:Convert. The project includes a number of bridges over rivers, road maintenance facilities, bus stop areas, avtopavilony, cattle trails, and electronic signage. Simultaneously with the construction of this highway, roads will be repaired and built in areas along its route.
The motorway network in Kazakhstan is rather underdeveloped, mainly due to the low population density in the country, which doesn't require wider roads on long distances. The following are the only existing multi-lane, double carriage roads in Kazakhstan:
- A1 - Runs from Astana to Shchuchinsk. It further continues as the A1 two-lane highway to Kokshetau. Motorway length: Template:Convert.
- A2 - Runs from Almaty to a point past Uzynagash. It further continues as the A2 two-lane highway to Shymkent. Motorway length: Template:Convert.
- A2 - Other four-lane portion runs from Shymkent to Zhibek Zholy, on the border with Uzbekistan. Length: Template:Convert.
- A3 - Runs from Almaty to Kapshagay. It further continues as the A3 two-lane highway to Oskemen. Motorway length: Template:Convert.
Total: 490 km
Waterways and Waterborne Transportation
Ports and harbors
Total: 11 vessels By type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, specialized tanker 1
Foreign-owned: 3 (Austria 1, Ireland 1, Turkey 1), 2010
The large area of the country and the associated long distances makes air travel a very important component in domestic travel.
Airports - with paved runways
- over Template:Convert: 10
- Template:Convert: 25
- Template:Convert: 16
- Template:Convert: 5
- under Template:Convert: 8 (2012)
Airports - with unpaved runways
- over Template:Convert: 5
- Template:Convert: 7
- Template:Convert: 3
- Template:Convert: 5
- under Template:Convert: 13 (2012)
Total: 3 (2012)
European Commission blacklisted all Kazakh carriers in 2009, with a sole exception of Air Astana. Since then, Kazakhstan was consistently taking measures to modernize and revamp its air safety oversight. Thus, in 2016 the European air safety authorities removed all Kazakh airlines from blacklist and there was “sufficient evidence of compliance” with international standards by Kazakh airlines and the Civil Aviation Committee.
Air Astana - most popular Kazakhstani Air operator Template:Main article Air Astana (Эйр Астана) is the principal airline and the flag carrier of the Republic of Kazakhstan, based in Almaty, Kazakhstan. It operates scheduled domestic and international services on 56 routes from its main hub, Almaty International Airport, and from its 2 secondary hubs, Astana International Airport and Atyrau Airport. It is a joint venture between Kazakhstan’s sovereign wealth fund Samruk-Kazyna (51%), and BAE Systems PLC (49%). It was incorporated in October 2001, and started commercial flights on 15 May 2002. At the 2012 World Airline Awards held at Farnborough Airshow in the UK, Air Astana was named the Best Airline in Central Asia & India.
Qazaq Air - New airline Qazaq Air is a new airline in Kazakhstan.
Air Astana operates the following destinations (as of April 2009):
- Aktau (Aktau Airport)
- Aktobe (Aktobe Airport)
- Almaty (Almaty International Airport) (Hub)
- Astana (Astana International Airport) (Hub)
- Atyrau (Atyrau Airport)
- Karaganda (Sary-Arka Airport)
- Kostanay (Kostanay Airport)
- Kyzylorda (Kyzylorda Airport)
- Oral (Oral Ak Zhol Airport)
- Oskemen (Oskemen Airport)
- Pavlodar (Pavlodar Airport)
- Petropavl (Petropavl Airport)
- Semey (Semey Airport)
- Shymkent (Shymkent International Airport)
- Zhezkazgan (Zhezkazgan Airport)
- South Korea
- United Arab Emirates
- United Kingdom
The New Silk Road
Kazakhstan is actively involved in the New Silk Road initiative, which is an infrastructure project expected to significantly accelerate and reduce the cost of goods delivery from China to Europe through Central Asia.
- Kazakhstan, South Korea to set up bus-assembling JV
- Air Astana website
- Kazakhstan Railways website in English
- Almaty airport details
- Official website for Astana Airport in English
- Unofficial website for Astana Airport in English