From Kazakhstan Encyclopedia
Zharmakhan Aytbayuli Tuyakbay (Template:Lang-kz Jarmaxan Aytbayulı Tuyaqbay; Template:Lang-ru Žarmaxan Ajtbaevič Tujakbaj; born on 22 November 1947 in South Kazakhstan Province of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union) is a Kazakh politician. At present, he is Chairman of the Nationwide Social Democratic Party and For a Just Kazakhstan political movement. Some analysts considered Tuyakbay the most significant challenger to Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev in the 2005 presidential elections.
Life and career
In 1971 Chairman Tuyakbay graduated from the Law Department of the Kazakh State University. The Investigatory Department of the Shymkent Oblast Prosecutor Office recruited him. In 1981, Tuyakbay was appointed Deputy General Prosecutor of Kazakhstan. In December, 1986 the Government of The Soviet Union severely crushed protests in Almaty in response to the appointing of the new First Secretary of the Kazakh Communist Party, whose nationality was Russian. This riot, which subsequently was named Jeltoqsan lead to numerous resignations and shifts among top Kazakh officials. Tuyakbay was removed from his office and appointed Prosecutor of Mangghystau Province, and later Atyrau Province.
In 1990, one year before the collapse of The Soviet Union and proclamation of declaration of independence of Kazakhstan, Tuyakbay was appointed General Prosecutor of Kazakhstan. In 1995, he was appointed Chairman of the State Investigatory Committee, and held the office until 1997. Upon his resignation, Tuyakbay became Chief Military Prosecutor of Kazakhstan.
In 1999, Tuyakbay ran for seat at Majilis (Lower House) of Parliament of Kazakhstan, and won the election at Sary-Agash region of South-Kazakhstan oblast. On December 1, 1999 Zharmakhan Tuyakbay was elected Chairman of Majlis of the Republic of Kazakhstan for five-year term. Several months before next parliamentary elections, which were due September 19, 2004, he became Vice-chairman of pro-government Otan party (Motherland), and was the first on the election party list.
However, on October 14, 2004 Tuyakbay publicly condemned violations during the elections and renounced his mandate of member of Majilis. A month later, he became Chairman of the Coordinating Council of Democratic Forces of Kazakhstan, which included Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan party (DCK), Naghyz Ak Zhol party and the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, and lead a working group for elaboration of draft of the new Constitution of Kazakhstan.
On March 20, 2005, Political Movement For a Just Kazakhstan was formed, and Tuyakbay became Chairman of the organization. On September 10, 2005 Zharmakhan Tuyakbay was announced a single candidate from the democratic forces of Kazakhstan to become a main challenger of the current president Nursultan Nazarbayev. On October 5, 2005, he was registered as presidential candidate by the Central Elections Committee of Kazakhstan.
On December 4, 2005 presidential elections Zharmakhan Tuyakbay with slightly more than 6% was the second after Nursultan Nazarbayev, who won more than 90% of the vote. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) concluded the election did not meet international standards despite some improvements in the administration of the election.
On 19 July 2006 Tuyakbay announced about establishing the Nationwide Social Democratic Party. The party was registered by the governmental authorities in January 2007. It aims to become a member of the Socialist International organization.
In the 18 August 2007 Majilis of Parliament of Kazakhstan elections, the party won 4.62% of the popular vote and no seats. All seats were won by the ruling Nur-Otan party.
Zharmakhan Tuyakbay is married, has three children and eight grandchildren.