Iris longiscapa

From Kazakhstan Encyclopedia

Revision as of 21:01, 27 April 2017 by Moderator (Talk | contribs)

(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Template:Italic titleTemplate:Taxobox Iris longiscapa is a species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus of Iris and in the Hexapogon section. It is a rhizomatous perennial, from the deserts of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. They have grass-like leaves, lilac-violet or blue-purple flowers, on a tall slender stem.

It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions


It is very similar in form to Iris songarica.[1]

It has a short, small rhizome.[1][2][3] It produces small, nut-like segments, (which are smaller than Iris falcifolia), one per year, that spread to create small creeping, dense tufts of plants.[1][4] On top of the rhizome are the fibrous remains of the previous seasons leaves.[1][4] Underneath, it has plenty of thick roots.[1][4]

It has basal, green, grass-like or filiform (thread-like) linear leaves.[1][2][3][4][5][6] They are narrow, deciduous and between Template:Convert wide.[3][5][6][7] The leaves are much narrower and straighter than Iris falcifolia.[6][7]

It has a slender stem (or peduncle) that can grow up to between Template:Convert long.[1][2][3][4][5][8][9] It is more longer and slender than Iris falcifolia,[4] but shorter than Iris songarica.[1]

The stems have 3 spathes (leaves of the flower bud), which are narrow and are acuminated (ending in a sharp point), and they have a hyaline (clear and translucent) or membranous margin.[1][4] The spathes have a small peduncle (stalk) that are between Template:Convert long.[5]

The stems hold short pedicels (flower stalks), which are Template:Convert long,[5] they hold 2-5 flowers,[1][2][4][5][9] between April and May.[1][3][4]

The flowers are Template:Convert in diameter,[1][5][7] they are slightly smaller than Iris falcifolia,[4] but smaller than Iris songarica.[1] They come in shades of lilac-violet,[1][4][5][8] or blue-purple,[2][3][9][10] It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals), known as the 'standards'.[11] The falls are oblong shaped,[1][4] and have darker veins along the margins.[1][4][5] In the centre of the falls, is a large, white, clavate (shaped like a club) beard.[2][5] It has a fine yellow centre.[2][3][8][10] The standards are erect, narrowly spatulate and can sometimes have hairs.[4]

The flowers are bisexual and actinomorphic (have radial symmetry).[1]

After the iris has flowered, it produces a pointed, 3-angled,[4] or 3 edged seed capsule,[1] Template:Convert long.[1][4]


As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings.[11] It has a chromosome count: 2n=18,[3][8][10] carried out by Zakharyeva in 1985.[5]


It is known locally as 'teke-sakal (in Turkmenistan) and kacathk (in Uzbekistan).[1]

The Latin specific epithet longiscapa refers to long, slender stem,[3][10] or long scape.[12]

It was first published and described by Carl Friedrich von Ledebour in 'Flora Rossica sive Enumeratio Plantarum in Totius Imperii Rossici Provinciis Europaeis, Asiaticis, et Americanis Hucusque Observatarum. Stuttgartiae' (Fl. Ross.) Vol.4 Issue12 page93 in April 1852.[5][13][14]

It was also published in 'Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg Divers Savans' Vol.7 page505 in 1854.[4] The synonym Iris filifolia Boiss. was published in 'Voy. Espagne' (1839–45) page602 in 1839.[4]

It has never been illustrated except for a small drawing of one flower published in Komarov's 'Flora USSR' in Vol.4, table34 in 1935.[5]

It was verified by United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service on 2 October 2014.[14]

Distribution and habitat

Iris longiscapa is native to temperate regions of Central Asia.[1][4][8][14]


It is found in (the former states of USSR),[3][6][10] of Kazakhstan,[14][15] Afghanistan,[9] Tajikistan,[14] Turkmenistan,[1][2][4][14][16] and Uzbekistan.[2][14][17] It is also found in Iran,[3][10] or the Turanian deserts.[18]

They are specifically found in the deserts of Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum.[1][4][5][6][7]


It is a (psammophyte) and grows in the sandy-clay deserts,[1][3][4][9] or on granite hills.[4] The soils contain NoH.[18]

It is also found in the Turanian gypsophilic (gypsum-loving) sagebrush lands of Kazakhstan, growing with Gagea reticulata, Nonea caspica and Tulipa sogdiana.[15]


A harvest of dry leaves of the iris are used as a litter for cattle in barns in Uzbekistan.[1]

It is eaten in spring by sheep in .[19]


Iris longiscapa is cultivated as an ornamental plant, though it is rare.[3][10]

It is not hardy in Europe, and should be grown in a pot or a cold greenhouse.[3] It is grown in loamy soils, in full sun with good drainage.[10] It needs to rest and be dry over summer, after it flowers.[10] It needs to be grown in full sun.[3]

A specimen was sent to Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden.[4]



Other sources

  • Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR).
  • Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
  • Mathew, B. 1981. The Iris. 66.

External links

Template:Clear Template:Iris subg. Iris
Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found